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If you're like many who use Google+, you may not check your pages very often. With posting and monitoring tools out there, you might not log into your actual account very often. You should. Custom URLs are now available.
For individual users, you should be getting an email if you meet the minimum requirements. These "requirements" are very minimal. Have a profile longer than a month, have at least 10 followers, and have a profile picture. If you can't meet these requirements, you're not really trying.
For pages, you have to log into your page accounts themselves. An option will pop up at the top that looks like this:
It's very easy with pages. With profiles, you have to verify with a text message.
I actually like the way that Google is doing this. I was on a plane when Facebook made the custom URL option available. By the time I landed, my name had already been taken. This method makes it much easier as long as the name isn't too common.
Businesses that don't see the option but that meet the minimum requirements should be fine. Just wait and keep checking until it pops up. If your name is common, it appears as if Google is adding location indicators to the URLs to help differentiate.
Keep checking. More importantly, don't give up on Google+ any time soon. They're still pushing forward and they aren't going to be denied just because so many naysayers call it a ghost town.